There are 25 types of coffee The most commercial fruit, but there are only 4 types of coffee most famous in the world selling coffee beans. And the four types of coffee are Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, Liberica coffee, and Excelsa coffee.
1. Arabica coffee
Arabica coffee originally originated from the Brazilian state. Arabica coffee is the first type of coffee found and cultivated by humans until now.
Arabica coffee has a morphological feature of the plant as follows: Arabica coffee has a deeper rooting, thin leaves, a flexible plant fork, small seed size with deep green color to dark red. This type of coffee plant takes 9 months to bloom and bear fruit. Arabica coffee grows at an altitude of 700-1700 m above sea level with a temperature of 16-20 degrees Celsius.
The downside of this type of Arabica coffee is one type of coffee that is prone to the attack of the HV disease Hemileia Vastratix or leaf rust disease. However, the quality of the seeds is much better than Liberica and robusta coffee. And also, the coffee type Arabica is famous for its delicious and strong aroma.
Arabica coffee today has mastered most of the world’s coffee market and its price is much higher than other types of coffee. In Indonesia we can find this type of Arabica coffee in Aceh or in Papua.
2. Robusta Coffee
Robusta Coffee was originally found in the Congo state. This type of coffee can grow well at an altitude of 400-700 m above sea level with a temperature of 21-24 degrees Celsius. Robusta coffee is more resistant to leaf rust disease attack. Generally, this type of coffee takes 10-11 months for the fertilization process from flower to fruit.
The downside of this type of robusta coffee is that it is less steady and tends to be more bitter than arabica. The price is also much cheaper than the Arabica coffee, so in Indonesia this type of coffee is also known as “cheap coffee”.
3. Coffee Liberika
Coffee Liberica originated in Liberia, West Africa. Liberica coffee can grow about 9 meters from the ground. This type of coffee has the size of the leaves, flowers, branches, fruit, and trees that are larger than the type of Arabica and robusta. Coffee Liberica is somewhat susceptible to the disease HV Hemileia vastratix or rust leaf disease.
It has a relatively low fruit quality, but liberic coffee is able to bear fruit throughout the year and can grow well in the lowlands. Coffee Liberica that has been imported into Indonesia is a variety of ardoniana and Durvei.
4. Excelsa coffee
Excelsa coffee originated in West Africa, the first time this type of coffee was found near Lake Chad. This type of Excelsa coffee is suitable cultivated in wet lowland areas. This type of coffee is very easy in terms of its cultivation, because the Excelsa coffee is not susceptible to attack on disease. This coffee can also be grown in peatland area.
In Indonesia, an Excelsa coffee is easily found in the West Tanjung Jabung District of Jambi Province, because the topography of land in the area is very supportive to plant this type of EXCELSA. Indeed, the price and quality is still far below the type of Arabica and robusta coffee but because this type of coffee plant is not easily attacked by disease, so many coffee farmers who are cultivating coffee is an excelsa.